Ladies a plate! Ladies only Bowls Tournament allowed

In a Victorian decision delivered in Portarlington Bowls Club – Exemption (Human Rights) [2018] VCAT 1571 (11 October 2018) the Tribunal determined that the ladies of the Portarlington Bowls Club (“the Club”) could conduct a ladies only bowls tournament.

The Tribunal noted the background to the tournament as follows:-

“The Club has a long-standing tradition of holding an annual ‘Ladies Section Open Day’. The next Ladies Section Open Day is 11 November 2018 and invitations will be issued to women in local clubs. Men are not invited (the conduct). Since 2013, the Club has operated the open day competition subject to an exemption granted by this Tribunal on 18 July 2013. The Club has made an application for a further five-year exemption to enable it to continue to run the competition under section 89 of the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (the Act).”

Section 89 of the Act permits the Tribunal to grant an exemption from any of the provisions of the Act in relation to a person or class of persons or an activity of class of activities by publishing a notice in the Government Gazette.

Section 90 of the Act requires the Tribunal, in deciding whether to grant, renew or revoke a decision to consider:-

(a)     whether the proposed exemption is unnecessary because-

(i)    an exception or exemption in the Act already applies to the conduct sought to be exempted; or

(ii)   the conduct sought to be exempted would not amount to prohibited discrimination; and

(b)     whether the proposed exemption is a reasonable limitation on the right to equality set out in the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities; and

(c)     all the relevant circumstances of the case.

Accordingly, the question to be determined by the Tribunal in this matter was “whether an exception already applies, primarily whether the open day constitutes a ‘special measure’ under section 12 of the Act.”

Section 12 (3) of the Act provides as follows:-

 “A special measure must-

(a)    be undertaken in good faith for achieving the purpose set out in subsection (1); and

(b)    be reasonably likely to achieve the purpose set out in subsection (1); and

(c)    be a proportionate means of achieving the purpose set out in subsection (1); and

(d)    be justified because the members of the group have a particular need for advancement or assistance.”

Section 12 (1) of the Act provides as follows:-

“A person may take a special measure for the purpose of promoting or realising substantive equality for members of a group with a particular attribute.”

The Tribunal noted:-

“…..some persons might find the use of the term “Ladies” inappropriate and might consider “Women” or “Female” more suitable. However, I consider that the term is reflective of the long tradition of the Club and of the demographic that this event serves. It is the term with which the relevant players are most comfortable and therefore the term most likely to attract players and teams to the event. Hence, I have adopted that term in these reasons.”

The Tribunal then indicated that it was satisfied with the evidence presented that:-

“…the Ladies Section Open Day provides assistance to women, particularly older women, to continue participation in bowls competitions and to develop leadership and tactical skills that they would not otherwise develop in a mixed-sex team. I am also satisfied that women, particularly older women, have a particular need in these circumstances for that assistance.

Given the declining numbers of women in the Applicant club [the Club], I consider that the continuation of the traditional Ladies Section Open Day assists in preventing further decline of female membership or, in other words, I am satisfied that the proportional loss of female membership would be greater in the absence of the single-sex competition days.”

The Tribunal further considered that the one day per year of the Ladies Section Open Day was proportionate to the purpose. The Ladies Section Open Day constituted a “special measure” and therefore an exception already applies to the conduct in these circumstances. Accordingly, an exemption is not required.

The Tribunal considered it lawful for the Club to conduct the Ladies Section Open Day as it constitutes a special measure and therefore no special exemption is required to be sought.

The Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission has produced a document “Equal Opportunity in Lawn Bowls – What you need to know about holding single-sex competitions” which can be found here.

Date Published: 23 October 2018


Facebook posts by others on your profile can be defamatory and your responsibility!

Johnstone v Aldridge [2018] SADC 68 held that liability for defamatory comments on Facebook posts were attributable to the host notwithstanding some of the defamatory comments were made by others (or “friends”).

Mr Aldridge was ordered to pay $100,000 in damages (including aggravated damages) with costs yet to be determined at the time of writing.

The Court held that Mr Aldridge’s initial Facebook post was defamatory but so were a number of the approximately 4,500 subsequent comments by “friends” and “supporters”. Whilst Mr Aldridge was clearly the author and publisher of his posts, the Court held he was a “secondary” publisher of the subsequent defamatory comments.

The case shows how common situations can escape common sense and easily transgress into liability inducing defamation. Mr Aldridge had lodged a town planning application to relocate his fresh fruit and vegetable “market”. Mr Johnstone was the owner of several fruit and vegetable shops and objected against the town planning application made by Mr Aldridge.

Mr Aldridge then embarked on a campaign through Facebook and in the media against Mr Johnstone with what turned out to be speculative and unsubstantiated comments. The only apparent reason for the campaign was to exert pressure on Mr Johnstone to abandon his objection against the town planning application lodged by Mr Aldridge. The campaign was apparently widespread with about 4,500 comments on Mr Aldridge’s post on his Facebook profile covering over 190 pages from “friends” and “supporters”. Unfortunately, the Court found that not only were Mr Aldridge’s comments defamatory but he was also responsible for allowing publication of some of the subsequent comments which were defamatory.

The Court held that Mr Aldridge had a responsibility to monitor the comments and to “remove those which were inappropriate or suffer the consequences irrespective of the inconvenience involved.” The effect is that a person must use reasonable diligence in monitoring and removing inappropriate comments.

Mr Aldridge had argued that the comments were not his, nor could he control the content of the comments and due to the large volume and speed of the comments it was impractical if not impossible for him to remove offending comments.

Apart from the Court doubting some of Mr Aldridge’s evidence as credible, it firmly determined that in these circumstances, it was not “unreasonable” nor “unrealistic” for him to monitor and remove comments that were inappropriate. The Court noted that he had at least two other persons to assist in such a task.

In our opinion, the decision is welcome to limit the “wild west” frontiers of social media by holding those accountable for defamatory conduct.

Accordingly, for those businesses using Facebook, it may be time to revisit social media policies and procedures with monitoring protocols being given special attention.

Mr Aldridge represented himself in this case and claimed he had “exhausted his finances and gone into debt in defending the claim and attempting to protect his reputation….”

Nevertheless, an appeal may be possible.


Date Published: 22 August 2018


Servcorp consents to court orders that contract terms with small business unfair

Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Servcorp Limited [2018] FCA 1044 determined that Servcorp Limited (“Servcorp”) and its subsidiaries had caused contracts with small business to be entered into which contained unfair terms. This was an action commenced by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (“ACCC”) against Servcorp and some of its subsidiaries.

Servcorp is a publicly listed company and a holding company of a range of companies providing office space and office support services across Australia. Servcorp, through its subsidiaries, entered into contracts with small business for the provision of office space and office services.

ACCC argued that pursuant to the Australian Consumer Law (“ACL”) contained in Schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, the relevant contracts were in standard form (Section 27 ACL) and would cause detriment to the small businesses (Section 24 and 25 ACL).

The Federal Court determined that the contracts between the Servcorp subsidiaries and the small business customers contained unfair terms (Section 24 ACL) and therefore, those terms were void (Section 23 ACL) because those terms:-

  • would cause a significant imbalance in the parties’ rights and obligations;
  • were not reasonably necessary in order to protect the legitimate interests of the Servcorp subsidiaries; and
  • would cause detriment (whether financial or otherwise) to the small business customers if they were to be applied or relied upon by the Servcorp Subsidiaries.

Specific terms that were considered unfair included:-

  1. There was an automatic renewal of the small business contracts which allowed Servcorp to increase the price at its absolute discretion and without notice.
  2. Permitted Servcorp to unilaterally terminate the contract and limit the small business’s termination rights.
  3. Unreasonably limit Servcorp’s liability and/or imposing unreasonable liability on the small business.
  4. Allowed Servcorp to terminate a contract where a claimed breach may not have constituted a material breach and without giving notice to the small business or the opportunity to remedy the claimed breach.
  5. Permitted Servcorp to retain a small business’s security deposit without notice if the small business failed to request its return.

The ACL was extended with effect from 12 November 2016 to cover “standard form contracts” (Section 27 ACL) involving “small business contracts” (Section 23(4) ACL). Interestingly, the Federal Court considered contracts that although originally entered into prior to the commencement of the extended provisions of the ACL, the contracts had been renewed after that date and were therefore subject to the ACL.

Section 23(4) of the ACL states:-

“A contract is a small business contract if:

(a) the contract is for a supply of goods or services or a sale of grant of an interest in land; and

(b) at the time the contract is entered into at least one party to the contract is a business that employs fewer than 20 persons; and

(c) either of the following applies:

(i) the upfront price payable under the contract does not exceed $300,000; and

(ii) the contract has a duration of more than 12 months and the upfront price payable under the contract does not exceed $1,000,000.”

The final outcome of the case is that orders were consented to by the parties that Servcorp and its subsidiaries, at their own expense, would:-

  • Establish and implement a program which has the purpose of ensuring compliance with the ACL with the program terms being agreed between ACCC and the subsidiaries.
  • That Servcorp employees and agents would participate in the program.
  • Pay costs of $150,000 to the ACCC on account of costs of and incidental to the proceedings.

This is now the second case in recent times in which the ACCC has initiated and won proceedings involving the protection of small business in dealing with standard form contracts and the imbalance of power by larger organisations. See Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v JJ Richards & Sons Pty Ltd [2017] FCA 1224.

Accordingly, small business owners may wish to consider their positions in a range of industries including franchising, shopping centre leases and supplier agreements. The imbalance in bargaining position between large or multinational organisations and small businesses has been apparent for some time but it would appear that the amendments to the ACL have merit and that the regulator is willing to act.


Date Published: 17 August 2018


Member Disputes – Consider Mediation!

Wolfe v Sydney Bush Walkers Inc [2018] NSWSC 1032 (4 July 2018) is another example of a protracted dispute between members. It appears that passions can be elevated in these circumstances that are not necessarily evident in commercial disputes. The Supreme Court of New South Wales, in its opening paragraph of the decision in this case, noted:-

“1.   This case is an unhappy example of a falling out between members of a recreational club that has led, quite unnecessarily, to legal processes out of all proportion to the issues at hand.

The case evolved from a member who was writing a part of the club’s history and a claim of plagiarism together with an apology not being in an agreed form. In our experience, disputes over the writing of a club’s history are not uncommon, unfortunately.

We strongly recommend that if a member (or other) is approved to write a history of the club, then there should be a clear understanding of the terms of the engagement. Most notably, will the author or the club own the copyright in the work?

But on the point of passion overriding common sense, we saw in our article in June 2018 here in Snow v Consumer Association of South Australia Inc. [2018] SADC 49, the District Court also noting the relationship between Mr Snow and the Consumer Association of South Australia Inc. as:-

“Overall the situation is as the Magistrate rightly characterised the relationship as one that ‘waxed and waned, but eventually it had broken down’. As her Honour further observed his:

… correspondence failed to address the gravamen of the complaints against him, and focussed on form rather than substance … [which] …demonstrated a clear unwillingness to address the substance of the allegations being made.


 … his preference to deal with technicalities and form as opposed to addressing the substance of the matter.

This court characterised his stance over the persistent demands for further and better particulars of the charges as a ‘rouse for delay and obfuscation’.”

In our June 2018 article, we stressed the importance of procedural fairness (or natural justice) which was also stressed in our article of February 2015 here.

However, adopting procedural fairness (natural justice) principles will not guarantee that disputes between members or between the committee/board and a member will not arise.

We do suggest that clubs and other NFPs give consideration to adopting an independent mediation process to further reduce the risk of impassioned members resorting to legal proceedings. Inevitably, resorting to legal proceedings is expensive, time consuming and frequently causes irreparable damage to previously productive relationships.

Date Published: 30 July 2018


Disciplinary Rules must have express power to suspend or expel

Snow v Consumer Association of South Australia Inc. [2018] SADC 49 provides some interesting observations in the need for procedural fairness (also referred to as natural justice) in disciplinary procedures against members of Not-for-profit (“NFP”) Associations.

This case was a decision of the South Australian District Court delivered in May 2018 resulting from an appeal by member Mr Snow against an unfavourable (to him) decision in the Magistrates Court.

Mr Snow made extensive claims of oppressive and unreasonable conduct by the Committee of Consumer Association of South Australia Inc. within the meaning of section 61 of the Associations Incorporation Act 1985 (SA). This provision is similar to sections 68 and 69 of the Associations Incorporation Reform Act 2012 (Vic). The case also reveals that emotions can run high in NFPs.

One aspect which Mr Snow appears to have been successful was that Consumer Association of South Australia Inc. had no express rule in its Constitution to suspend or expel him “from taking part in the business of the association”. Therefore, it could not suspend or expel him.

Along with many submissions, Mr Snow sought reinstatement of his membership. The District Court in making its final orders, in Snow v Consumer Association of South Australia (No 2) [2018] SADC 65 queried:-

“The question then clearly arises whether it is appropriate to reinstate Mr Snow in the circumstances where he has shown a bent for disruption, obsessive technicality and the pursuit of his own objectives.”

The District Court also noted the relationship between Mr Snow and the Consumer Association of South Australia Inc. as:-

“Overall the situation is as the Magistrate rightly characterised the relationship as one that ‘waxed and waned, but eventually it had broken down’. As her Honour further observed his:

… correspondence failed to address the gravamen of the complaints against him, and focussed on form rather than substance … [which] …demonstrated a clear unwillingness to address the substance of the allegations being made.


 … his preference to deal with technicalities and form as opposed to addressing the substance of the matter.

This court characterised his stance over the persistent demands for further and better particulars of the charges as a ‘rouse for delay and obfuscation’.”

Finally, the District Court determined:-

“Given that Mr Snow succeeded in demonstrating errors in the approach of the Magistrate and was vindicated to the extent of securing declarations of wrongful suspension and expulsion, but otherwise failed to obtain orders for reinstatement or for a rehearing of his appeal to a general meeting, there will be no order as to costs.”

Accordingly, NFPs should confirm that the provisions of Constitutions or Rules provide express powers to suspend or expel members. If such a power does not exist then such action by an NFP is likely to be oppressive or unreasonable conduct.

Even if the Constitution or Rules specifically provide for suspension or expulsion, the NFP should ensure that it conducts any disciplinary procedures in accordance with procedural fairness or natural justice. Some aspects which need to be included in ensuring procedural fairness by the Association include that the member must:-

  1. be advised of the charges against him;
  2. given reasonable notice to attend a disciplinary hearing;
  3. be given a fair and reasonable opportunity to present his side of the story and test the evidence against him;
  4. be heard by an unbiased and fair minded disciplinary board; and
  5. be advised of the decision and given the opportunity to speak on penalty.

The terms procedural fairness and natural justice are largely self-explanatory and NFPs need to ensure that a fair procedure is adopted in hearing disciplinary matters against members. Too often we see matters that are too hastily considered and become highly emotive. In one case, a matter was brought before the president of a sporting club on Friday night only for him to demand that a hearing be held the next morning (Saturday) requiring the alleged offending member to appear at 9:00am with no specific details of the allegations.

A simple approach is to simply ask oneself: if this were happening to me would I consider it to be fair?

Date Published: 29 June 2018